World Governance Indicators (WGI) is a research dataset summarizing the views on the quality of governance provided by a large number of enterprises, citizens and expert survey respondents in industrial and developing countries. These data are gathered from a number of survey institutes, think tanks, non-government organizations, international organizations and private sector firms. The WGI is a research project of the World Bank (WB) since 1996 and covers 211 countries.
The WGI is an aggregate of six dimensions:
- Voice and Accountability: reflects perceptions of the extent to which a country’s citizens are able to participate in selecting their government, as well as freedom of expression, freedom of association, and a free media
- Government Effectiveness: reflects perceptions of the quality of public services, the quality of the civil service and the degree of its independence from political pressures, the quality of policy formulation and implementation, and the credibility of the government’s commitment to such policies
- Control of Corruption: reflects perceptions of the extent to which public power is exercised for private gain, including both petty and grand forms of corruption, as well as “capture” of the state by elites and private interests
- Rule of Law: reflects perceptions of the extent to which agents have confidence in and abide by the rules of society, and in particular the quality of contract enforcement, property rights, the police, and the courts, as well as the likelihood of crime and violence
- Regulatory Quality: reflects perceptions of the ability of the government to formulate and implement sound policies and regulations that permit and promote private sector development
- Political Stability and Absence of Violence/ Terrorism: measures perceptions of the likelihood of political instability and/or politically-motivated violence, including terrorism
The Philippine Development Plan has adopted all indicators except Political Stability as this is related to peace and security rather than governance.
For Chapter 5, the WGI indicators monitored are Voice and Accountability, Government Effectiveness, Control of Corruption and Regulatory Quality.
For Chapter 6, the adopted indicator is for Rule of Law.
Philippine Performance for the Past Five Years
|Voice and Accountability||48.36||47.89||48.83||52.71||51.23||50.74|
|Control of Corruption||27.96||35.07||43.60||40.38||39.90||34.13|
|Rule of Law||37.09||38.97||42.25||43.75||43.27||36.54|
The latest report reflects up to year 2016. Meanwhile, the Philippines’ current standings on each dimension are the following:
- Voice and Accountability. The country’s rank increased from 48.4 pctl in 2011 to 50.7 pctl in 2016. This may be attributed to the country’s commitment to increase transparency, empower citizens and promote open government.
- Government Effectiveness. The indicator shows a decline from 57.35 in 2011 to 51.9 in 2016. Reasons for this include delays in infrastructure and bureaucratic government processes.
- Control of Corruption. Improvements in this indicator were observed from 2012-2013; however, the scores have been downhill from there. Corruption still beleaguers the bureaucracy, especially with the spate of cases against high-ranking officials in the past years.
- Rule of Law. There was good progress in this indicator from 2012-2015 but a seven-percentile decrease was seen last year. Issues in the judiciary such as fragmentation in the sector and political undercurrents may have affected our rank.
- Regulatory Quality. This is the only indicator where steady increase can be found over time since 2011. Slowly but surely, improvements in regulations have increased the country’s ranking on this indicator.
Philippine vs. ASEAN Performance for the Current Year
|Country||Voice and Accountability||Government Effectiveness||Control of Corruption||Rule of Law||Regulatory Quality|
Singapore mainly dominated the rest of ASEAN in all but one indicator, voice and accountability wherein the Philippines ranked the highest. Despite this, the latest rankings show that the Philippines needs to catch up given that it belongs to the lower 1/3 of our neighbors for other indicators.
Frequency of update: Yearly
Publication of update: 20 September 2017
Period of study: Previous year of data release (i.e. WGI 2014 released on Q4 2015). Note: According to World Bank, it is hard to determine the exact reference period since the data are gathered from various individual sources with different reference periods
Link to the main site: http://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/#home
Historical data: http://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/wgidataset.xlsx